Grenada Facts

BACKGROUND:

Carib Indians inhabited Grenada when Christopher COLUMBUS discovered the island in 1498, but it remained uncolonized for more than a century. The French settled Grenada in the 17th century, established sugar estates, and imported large numbers of African slaves. Britain took the island in 1762 and vigorously expanded sugar production. In the 19th century, cacao eventually surpassed sugar as the main export crop; in the 20th century, nutmeg became the leading export. In 1967, Britain gave Grenada autonomy over its internal affairs. Full independence was attained in 1974 making Grenada one of the smallest independent countries in the Western Hemisphere. Grenada was seized by a Marxist military council on 19 October 1983. Six days later the island was invaded by US forces and those of six other Caribbean nations, making Caribbean news, which quickly captured the ringleaders and their hundreds of Cuban advisers. Free elections were reinstituted the following year and have continued since that time. Hurricane Ivan struck Grenada in September of 2004 causing severe damage.

GEOGRAPHY:

Location:
Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago
Geographic coordinates:
12 07 N, 61 40 W
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total: 344 sq km
country comparison to the world: 206
land: 344 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area – comparative:
twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
121 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds
Terrain:
volcanic in origin with central mountains
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Saint Catherine 840 m
Natural resources:
timber, tropical fruit, deepwater harbors
Land use:
arable land: 5.88%
permanent crops: 29.41%
other: 64.71% (2005)
Irrigated land:
15 sq km (2008)
Total renewable water resources:
NA
Natural hazards:

lies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season lasts from June to November
Environment – current issues:
NA
Environment – international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography – note:
the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada

PEOPLE & SOCIETY:

Nationality:
noun: Grenadian(s)
adjective: Grenadian
Ethnic groups:
black 82%, mixed black and European 13%, European and East Indian 5%, and trace of Arawak/Carib Amerindian
Languages:
English (official), French patois
Religions:
Roman Catholic 53%, Anglican 13.8%, other Protestant 33.2%
Population:
109,011 (July 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
Age structure:
0-14 years: 25.4% (male 14,152/female 13,390)
15-64 years: 65.7% (male 36,245/female 34,960)
65 years and over: 8.9% (male 4,372/female 5,300) (2011 est.)
Median age:
total: 28.6 years
male: 28.6 years
female: 28.6 years (2011 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.538% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148
Birth rate:

16.81 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
Death rate:
7.98 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
Net migration rate:
-3.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182
Urbanization:
urban population: 39% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major cities – population:
SAINT GEORGE’S (capital) 40,000 (2009)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2012 est.)
Infant mortality rate:

total: 11.12 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 140
male: 10.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.3 years
country comparison to the world: 120
male: 70.76 years
female: 76.09 years (2012 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.15 children born/woman (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
Health expenditures:
7.1% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 74
Hospital bed density:
2.4 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 97% of population
rural: 93% of population
total: 94% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3% of population
rural: 7% of population
total: 6% of population (2000)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 96% of population
rural: 97% of population
total: 97% of population
unimproved:
urban: 4% of population
rural: 3% of population
total: 3% of population (2008)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA
HIV/AIDS – deaths:
NA
Education expenditures:
4.9% of GDP (2003)
country comparison to the world: 60
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: NA
female: NA (2003 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 16 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2009)

GOVERNMENT:

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Grenada
Government type:
parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm
Capital:
name: Saint George’s
geographic coordinates: 12 03 N, 61 45 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
6 parishes and 1 dependency*; Carriacou and Petite Martinique*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick
Independence:
7 February 1974 (from the UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 7 February (1974)
Constitution:
19 December 1973
Legal system:
common law based on English model
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Carlyle Arnold GLEAN (since 27 November 2008)
head of government: Prime Minister Tillman THOMAS (since 9 July 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (13 seats, 10 members appointed by the government and 3 by the leader of the opposition) and the House of Representatives (15 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 8 July 2008 (next to be held in 2013)
election results: House of Representatives – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – NDC 11, NNP 4
Judicial branch:
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of a court of Appeal and a High Court of Justice (two High Court judges are assigned to and reside in Grenada); Itinerant Court of Appeal three judges; member of the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ)
Political parties and leaders:
Grenada United Labor Party or GULP [Gloria Payne BANFIELD]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [Tillman THOMAS]; New National Party or NNP [Keith MITCHELL]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Committee for Human Rights in Grenada or CHRG; New Jewel Movement Support Group; The British Grenada Friendship Society; The New Jewel 19 Committee
International organization participation:
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, ITUC, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gillian M.S. BRISTOL
chancery: 1701 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 265-2561
FAX: [1] (202) 265-2468
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Grenada
embassy: Lance-aux-Epines Stretch, Saint George’s
mailing address: P. O. Box 54, Saint George’s
telephone: [1] (473) 444-1173 through 1177
FAX: [1] (473) 444-4820
Flag description:
a rectangle divided diagonally into yellow triangles (top and bottom) and green triangles (hoist side and outer side), with a red border around the flag; there are seven yellow, five-pointed stars with three centered in the top red border, three centered in the bottom red border, and one on a red disk superimposed at the center of the flag; there is also a symbolic nutmeg pod on the hoist-side triangle (Grenada is the world’s second-largest producer of nutmeg, after Indonesia); the seven stars stand for the seven administrative divisions, with the central star denoting the capital, St. George; yellow represents the sun and the warmth of the people, green stands for vegetation and agriculture, and red symbolizes harmony, unity, and courage
National anthem:
name: “Hail Grenada”
lyrics/music: Irva Merle BAPTISTE/Louis Arnold MASANTO
note: adopted 1974

ECONOMY:

Grenada relies on tourism as its main source of foreign exchange especially since the construction of an international airport in 1985. Hurricanes Ivan (2004) and Emily (2005) severely damaged the agricultural sector – particularly nutmeg and cocoa cultivation – which had been a key driver of economic growth. Grenada has rebounded from the devastating effects of the hurricanes but is now saddled with the debt burden from the rebuilding process. Public debt-to-GDP is nearly 110%, leaving the THOMAS administration limited room to engage in public investments and social spending. Strong performances in construction and manufacturing, together with the development of tourism and an offshore financial industry, have also contributed to growth in national output; however, economic growth remained stagnant in 2010-11 after a sizeable contraction in 2009, because of the global economic slowdown’s effects on tourism and remittances.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.453 billion (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 195
$1.442 billion (2010 est.)
$1.428 billion (2009 est.)
note: datum is in 2011 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$800 million (2011 est.)
GDP – real growth rate:
NA% (2011 est.)
-1.4% (2010 est.)
-7.7% (2009 est.)
GDP – per capita (PPP):
$13,300 (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
$13,400 (2010 est.)
$13,600 (2009 est.)
note: data are in 2011 US dollars
GDP – composition by sector:
agriculture: 10.6%
industry: 28.9%
services: 60.5% (2011 est.)
Labor force:
47,580 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 192
Labor force – by occupation:
agriculture: 11%
industry: 20%
services: 69% (2008 est.)
Unemployment rate:
25% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 174
12.5% (2000)
Population below poverty line:
38% (2008)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Investment (gross fixed):
16.3% of GDP (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
Budget:
revenues: $175.3 million
expenditures: $215.9 million (2009 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
21.9% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-5.1% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
5% (2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
6.5% (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 48
6.5% (31 December 2008)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
9.7% (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
10.6% (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of narrow money:
$111.2 million (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
$112.7 million (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of broad money:
$821.1 million (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
$766.9 million (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of domestic credit:
$654.1 million (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
$598.5 million (31 December 2010 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Agriculture – products:
bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, mace, citrus, avocados, root crops, sugarcane, corn, vegetables
Industries:
food and beverages, textiles, light assembly operations, tourism, construction
Electricity – production:
195.4 million kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179
Electricity – consumption:
177.4 million kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
Electricity – exports:
0 kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity – imports:
0 kWh (2009 est.)
Oil – production:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
Oil – consumption:
3,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177
Oil – exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
Oil – imports:

1,913 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
Oil – proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
Natural gas – production:
0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
Natural gas – consumption:
0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
Natural gas – exports:
0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
Natural gas – imports:
0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 198
Natural gas – proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
Current account balance:
-$174.8 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
-$174.8 million (2009 est.)
Exports:
$38.69 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 200
$38 million (2006)
Exports – commodities:
nutmeg, bananas, cocoa, fruit and vegetables, clothing, mace
Exports – partners:
St. Lucia 16.6%, Egypt 15.9%, Antigua and Barbuda 11.3%, US 11%, St. Kitts and Nevis 10.1%, Dominica 10.1% (2010)
Imports:
$252.8 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 197
Imports – commodities:
food, manufactured goods, machinery, chemicals, fuel
Imports – partners:
Trinidad and Tobago 43.7%, US 18.8% (2010)
Debt – external:
$531 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 165
$347 million (2004)
Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar –
2.7 (2011 est.)
2.7 (2010 est.)
2.7 (2009)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

est.)

country comparison to the world: 195

$1.442 billion (2010 est.)
$1.428 billion (2009 est.)
note: datum is in 2011 US dollars
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$800 million (2011 est.)
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NA% (2011 est.)
-1.4% (2010 est.)
-7.7% (2009 est.)
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$13,300 (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 92

$13,400 (2010 est.)
$13,600 (2009 est.)
note: data are in 2011 US dollars
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agriculture: 10.6%
industry: 28.9%
services: 60.5% (2011 est.)
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47,580 (2008)

country comparison to the world: 192

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agriculture: 11%
industry: 20%
services: 69% (2008 est.)
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25% (2008)

country comparison to the world: 174

12.5% (2000)
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38% (2008)
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lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
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16.3% of GDP (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 158

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revenues: $175.3 million
expenditures: $215.9 million (2009 est.)
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21.9% of GDP (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 144

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-5.1% of GDP (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 156

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4% (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 105

5% (2010 est.)
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6.5% (31 December 2009)

country comparison to the world: 48

6.5% (31 December 2008)
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9.7% (31 December 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 88

10.6% (31 December 2010 est.)
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$111.2 million (31 December 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 185

$112.7 million (31 December 2010 est.)
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$821.1 million (31 December 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 172

$766.9 million (31 December 2010 est.)
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$654.1 million (31 December 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 163

$598.5 million (31 December 2010 est.)
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$NA
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bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, mace, citrus, avocados, root crops, sugarcane, corn, vegetables
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food and beverages, textiles, light assembly operations, tourism, construction
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195.4 million kWh (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 179

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177.4 million kWh (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 185

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0 kWh (2009 est.)
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
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0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 176

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3,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 177

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0 bbl/day (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 176

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1,913 bbl/day (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 180

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0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 137

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0 cu m (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 189

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0 cu m (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 183

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0 cu m (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 106

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0 cu m (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 198

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0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 142

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-$174.8 million (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 79

-$174.8 million (2009 est.)
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$38.69 million (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 200

$38 million (2006)
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nutmeg, bananas, cocoa, fruit and vegetables, clothing, mace
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St. Lucia 16.6%, Egypt 15.9%, Antigua and Barbuda 11.3%, US 11%, St. Kitts and Nevis 10.1%, Dominica 10.1% (2010)
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$252.8 million (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 197

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food, manufactured goods, machinery, chemicals, fuel
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Trinidad and Tobago 43.7%, US 18.8% (2010)
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$531 million (2009)

country comparison to the world: 165

$347 million (2004)
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East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar –
2.7 (2011 est.)
2.7 (2010 est.)
2.7 (2009)
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calendar year

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